Why buy reclaimed?

Reclaimed roof tiles can dramatically improve the overall look of your project blending in seamlessly with an existing roof or nearby buildings

Reclaimed or second hand slates and roof tiles come in some beautiful varieties, some are actually antiques and in parts of the country certain roof tile types must be used as required by the local planning authority

We have direct access to a number of well stocked reclamation yards and we have founded a reclamation yard partnership with reclamation yards and roof tile suppliers all over the UK

Roof shapes and sizes

Roof shapes, sizes and much more. A roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building. A roof protects the building and its contents from the effects of weather. Structures that require roofs range from a letter box to a cathedral or stadium, dwellings being the most numerous.

In most countries a roof protects primarily against rain. Depending upon the nature of the building, the roof may also protect against heat, against sunlight, against cold and against wind. Other types of structure, for example, a garden conservatory, might use roofing that protects against cold, wind and rain but admits light. A veranda may be roofed with material that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements.

The characteristics of a roof are dependent upon the purpose of the building that it covers, the available roofing materials and the local traditions of construction and wider concepts of architectural design and practice and may also be governed by local or national legislation.

The elements in the design of a roof are:

  • The material
  • The construction
  • The durability

Material

The material of a roof may range from banana leaves, wheaten straw or seagrass to laminated glass, aluminium sheeting and precast concrete. In many parts of the world ceramic tiles have been the predominant roofing material for centuries.

Construction

The construction of a roof is determined by its method of support and how the underneath space is bridged and whether or not the roof is pitched. The pitch is the angle at which the roof rises from its lowest to highest point. Most domestic architecture, except in very dry regions, has roofs that are sloped, or pitched. The pitch is partly dependent upon stylistic factors, but has more to do with practicalities. Some types of roofing, for example thatch, require a steep pitch in order to be waterproof and durable.[1] Other types of roofing, for example pantiles, are unstable on a steeply pitched roof but provide excellent weather protection at a relatively low angle. In regions where there is little rain, an almost flat roof with a slight run-off provides adequate protection against an occasional downpour.

Durability

The durability of a roof is a matter of concern because the roof is often the least accessible part of a building for purposes of repair and renewal, while its damage or destruction can have serious effects.

Parts of a roof

There are two parts to a roof, its supporting structure and its outer skin, or uppermost weatherproof layer. In a minority of buildings, the outer layer is also a self-supporting structure. The roof structure is generally supported upon walls, although some building styles, for example, geodesic and A-frame, blur the distinction between wall and roof. The supporting structure of a roof usually comprises beams that are long and of strong, fairly rigid material such as timber, and since the mid 19th century, cast iron or steel. In countries that use bamboo extensively, the flexibility of the material causes a distinctive curving line to the roof, characteristic of Oriental architecture.

Timber lends itself to a great variety of roof shapes. Moreover, because timber can be worked in a variety of ways, the timber structure can fulfil an aesthetic as well as practical function, when left exposed to view.

Stone lintels have been used to support roofs since prehistoric times, but cannot bridge large distances. The stone arch came into extensive use in the ancient Roman period and in variant forms could be used to span spaces up to 140 feet across. The stone arch or vault, with or without ribs, dominated the roof structures of major architectural works for about 2,000 years, only giving way to iron beams with the Industrial Revolution and the designing of such buildings as Paxton's Crystal Palace, completed 1851.

With continual improvements in steel girders, these became the major structural support for large roofs, and eventually for ordinary houses as well. Another form of girder is the reinforced concrete beam, in which metal rods are encased in concrete, giving it greater strength under tension.

In simple vernacular architecture, roofing material is often vegetation, such as thatches, the most durable being sea grass with a life of perhaps 40 years. In many Asian countries bamboo is used both for the supporting structure and the outer layer where split bamboo stems are laid turned alternately and overlapped. In areas with an abundance of timber, wooden shingles are used, while in some countries the bark of certain trees can be peeled off in thick, heavy sheets and used for roofing.

The 20th century saw the manufacture of composition shingles which can last from a thin 20-year shingle to the thickest which are limited lifetime shingles, the cost depending on the thickness and durability of the shingle. When a layer of shingles wears out, they are usually stripped, along with the underlay and roofing nails, allowing a new layer to be installed. An alternative method is to install another layer directly over the worn layer. While this method is faster, it does not allow the roof sheathing to be inspected and water damage, often associated with worn shingles, to be repaired. Having multiple layers of old shingles under a new layer causes roofing nails to be located further from the sheathing, weakening their hold. The greatest concern with this method is that the weight of the extra material could exceed the dead load capacity of the roof structure and cause collapse.

Slate is an ideal and durable material, while in the Swiss Alps roofs are made from huge slabs of stone, several inches thick. The slate roof is often considered the best type of roofing. A slate roof may last 75 to 150 years, and even longer. However, slate roofs are often expensive to install – in the USA, for example, a slate roof may have the same cost as the rest of the house. Often, the first part of a slate roof to fail is the fixing nails; they corrode, allowing the slates to slip. In the UK, this condition is known as "nail sickness". Because of this problem, fixing nails made of stainless steel or copper are recommended, and even these must be protected from the weather.

Roofs made of cut turf (modern ones known as Green roofs, traditional ones as sod roofs) have good insulating properties and are increasingly encouraged as a way of "greening" the Earth. Adobe roofs are roofs of clay, mixed with binding material such as straw or animal hair, and plastered on lathes to form a flat or gently sloped roof, usually in areas of low rainfall.

In areas where clay is plentiful, roofs of baked tiles have been the major form of roof. The casting and firing of roof tiles is an industry that is often associated with brickworks. While the shape and colour of tiles was once regionally distinctive, now tiles of many shapes and colours are produced commercially, to suit the taste of the purchaser.

Sheet metal in the form of copper and lead has also been used for many hundreds of years. Both are expensive but durable, the vast copper roof of Chartres Cathedral, oxidised to a pale green colour, having been in place for hundreds of years. Lead, which is sometimes used for church roofs, was most commonly used as flashing in valleys and around chimneys on domestic roofs, particularly those of slate. Copper was used for the same purpose.

In the 19th century, iron, electroplated with zinc to improve its resistance to rust, became a light-weight, easily-transported, waterproofing material. While its insulating properties were poor, its low cost and easy application made it the most accessible commercial roofing, world wide. Since then, many types of metal roofing have been developed. Steel shingle or standing-seam roofs last about 50 years or more depending on both the method of installation and the moisture barrier (underlayment) used and are between the cost of shingle roofs and slate roofs. In the 20th century a large number of roofing materials were developed, including roofs based on bitumen (already used in previous centuries), on rubber and on a range of synthetics such as thermoplastic and on fibreglass.

Some roofing materials, particularly those of natural fibrous material, such as thatch, have excellent insulating properties. For those that do not, extra insulation is often installed under the outer layer. In developed countries, the majority of dwellings have a ceiling installed under the structural member of the roof. The purpose is to insulate against heat and cold, noise, dirt and often from the droppings and lice of birds who frequently choose roofs as nesting places.

Other forms of insulation are felt or plastic sheeting, sometimes with a reflective surface, installed directly below the tiles or other material; synthetic foam batting laid above the ceiling and recycled paper products and other such materials that can be inserted or sprayed into roof cavities.

So called Cool roofs are becoming increasingly popular, and in some cases are mandated by local codes. Cool roofs are defined as roofs with both high reflectivity and high emissivity.

Roof shapes

  • Barrel-arched
  • Catenary
  • Conical
  • Cut Roof
  • Domical
  • Flat
  • Outshut
  • Pyramidal
  • Ridged
  • Pitched or gabled
  • Asian traditional style
  • Crow-stepped gable (also called corbie step) gable
  • Dutch gable a hybrid of hipped and gable
  • Shaped gable
  • Salt-box
  • Saddleback a gabled roof atop a tower
  • Hip roof includes a sketch of a Dutch gable (Australian terminology)
  • Half-hipped
  • Mansard with the pitch divided into a shallow slope above a steeper slope
  • Gambrel as a mansard, but on only two sides of the roof
  • Bell-cast as a mansard, but with the shallow slope below the steeper slope
  • pavilion
  • Skillion roof single-sloped, lean to, or shed roof
  • cat slide
  • Lean-to
  • Saw-tooth
To view pictures of roof shapes and size please click here
 

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